Digital design tutorial – how I do it

When starting a new project, I like to make some sketches and images of what I want to do. I generally start with some paper sketches, but these have the disadvantage of 1. me not being a great artist and 2. being difficult to color, especially with patterned fabrics.

So generally, once the design is clearer in my head, I make a digital ‘sketch’ of what I want the finished project to look like. Below two examples of past and current projects:

 

In this post, I’ll attempt to show how I make my images in photoshop. A similar post was written by American Duchess, but her method is slightly different from mine. You can, of course, also use a combination of methods, just pick whatever works for you! The main difference is that I don’t have a tablet, so draw my lines differently (I’m also not nearly as good an artist as she is!). My method should also work if you’re no good at drawing. I also tend to use layer masks for coloring instead of erasing outlines.

This tutorial will assume a slight familiarity with photoshop, but I’ll try to be as clear as possible, and questions are always welcome!

To start with, I always look for a base picture. This is because I’m not a great artist, and drawing with a mouse is very tricky. This shape of this base should resemble your finished vision as closely as possible. Color, etc. doesn’t matter. It’s also possible to use a combination of pictures. I tend to look for fashion plates and pictures of existent dresses. If you wish to use (modern) art, or a modern photo it would be good to first ask if you’re allowed to use the image! Especially if you’ll be posting it online.

For this tutorial, I’ll be using this dress from the Glasgow Museums. The dress I’ll be designing will have the same shape, but have a chintz dress and a plain petticoat with a ruffle at the bottom.

Damask robe a l’Anglaise with floral pattern, 18th century </br> © CSG CIC:

So let’s start with opening this image in photoshop! The picture will be your base layer. The outlines of the different ‘garments’ (dress, petticoat) will all be on separate layers. The colors will each have their own layers as well.

I always start with the outlines. To draw the outlines, I use the pen tool. This can be a bit tricky to use at first, but I’ve found it much nicer than the mouse when figured out.

To start, open photoshop, make a new document and copy your base into it. The first thing to do now is to select the brush for the lines. Select the brush tool on the left, and select your brush at the top. I personally like this ‘brush’ tool (the one bordered in blue), at the smallest size.

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I always first check if my line won’t be too wide by drawing a bit. In this case, I find it a bit too thick. The pencil can’t be smaller (it’s already at size 1), so let’s make the base image a bit bigger. (First, to remove the line, undo one step or use ctrl-z)

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To do this, select Image -> Image size. I generally just enlarge the image by 2 by setting it to 200 percent.

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Now lets start making the line. First, switch to the Pen tool in the left toolbar. Click where you want your line to start, a small square will appear here. Next, click where you want the first section of line to end. You will see the two dots connected like this. (It’s a very thin grey-ish line)

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The problem now is that the line is straight, but I want it to follow the neckline. To do this, you don’t release the mouse on the second click, but drag it away to the side. You will see the thin line becoming curved. Drag it until the line is at the right place, and then release the mouse. It’ll look something like this.

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It’s now following the curve. The great thing about the pen tool is that it will make the next curve nicely follow the last one. That’s also the annoying thing about the pen tool, because it’s not always what you want. To give an example, if my next click is somewhere above the last point, it’ll do this.

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You can see the curve between the second and last point. If you don’t want this, but just want a straight line from the second to third point, you can press ALT and click on the second point before you make the third. You’ll see that one of the ‘guidelines’ sticking out from that point will disappear. This is what it’d look like.

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From this point, you can keep clicking where you want your line to come. I usually do this in small parts, so I don’t select the entire outline at once. In this case, my first segment is the neckline and part of one sleeve.

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I now want to turn this guideline (path) into an actual black outline. First, make a new empty layer for the lines in the layer menu bottom left. Next, right-click on the path and select ‘Stroke’. Make sure the ‘Tool’ is set to ‘Brush’, and that your foreground color (bottom left square) is the color you want the outline to be (black). Then click OK.

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You will now see the black outline in the same place as the path!

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To continue, first delete the path you just made. You can do this by pressing Enter, or right-click on the path and delete. Continue on making paths, stroking them and deleting paths until you’ve outlined the whole dress. Don’t do the petticoat yet, as this will be a different layer. General guideline: everything which needs to be a different color on a different layer. The whole dress done:

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For the petticoat lines, make a new layer and do the missing lines same as the dress. In this case that’s just the hem. I also drew a squiggly line to mark the top of where I want my ruffles to be. These type of lines are easier using the mouse and the brush tool.

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The ruffle still looks a bit weird, some lines resembling the pleats can improve the image a lot. Always try to draw there ruffle or pleat lines in a new layer! This will make it easier to color everything the same color later on.

After all the lines are drawn, you can hide the base layer, getting this outline!

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Now it’s time for coloring! The dress will be a chintz fabric. I usually just google for images resembling the fabric I want to use. In this case, it’s a chintz from Betina Printing.

Copy the image onto a new layer, underneath the layers with the outlines.

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It’s not quite big enough, but I like the scale. If the print is too big, just make the picture smaller. Then I just copy that print layer and move the copies to fill the whole dress. I generally don’t look too much at seamless lines, you barely see it anyway with a busy print like this.

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The whole dress is filled! Now, first make sure all the prints are on the same layer again. You can merge layers by selecting all layers you want to merge and clicking ‘Merge layers’.

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Now let’s make sure only the dress is colored. We’ll do this with layer masks. For now, hide the layer with the print on it. Select the ‘wand’ tool from the toolbar left. Make sure that at the top, both ‘Contagious’ and ‘Sample all layers’ are on. (Tolerance can be low, 0 even).

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We’re now going to select all the areas within the dress, so the areas we want colored by the chintz. Click on one part at a time. To add the next part, hold SHIFT while you click. This will add the selection to your current one, instead of replacing it.

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Once you’ve got the whole dress selected, you can make the selection a tiny bit larger. This will make sure the color will go up to the line, and not stop a couple of pixels before. To do this, click Select -> Modify -> Expand. Set it to 1 pixel, that should be enough, and click OK.

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Now, for the magic! Turn on your fill layer again, and go to this layer. At the bottom of the layer menu, there’s a ‘Mask’ button. The little black square with a white circle inside. If you click that button, a layer mask will be added. This will hide all the non-selected parts of your document, making sure only the parts of the dress are still visible!

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Similarly, you can also color the same way just using a solid color. We’ll do that for the petticoat. Add another layer (below the lines), and fill this with the color you want the garment to be.

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Now we’ll do the same thing again, starting with hiding the color layers. Then, hide the layer on which you drew ruffles etc. This will make the selecting process easier!

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Select the entire petticoat, enlarge the selection by 1 pixel, un-hide the color layer, select that layer and click ‘Mask’ in the layer menu.

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Unhiding the color for the dress and the ruffles, you’ve now got a basic design done.

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What if you change your mind, or want to compare different colorways? It’s quite easy to add another color option. (Of course, for the fill layer, you can also just fill the layer with another color. This option will keep both versions though).

Let’s try to give the dress a solid red color. First make a new layer for the red, and fill this with the chosen color.

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Now we want to give this layer the same mask as the original dress layer. You can, of course, repeat the whole process, but there’s also an easier way. Hold CTRL on your keyboard, and click the mask layer for the dress. (So the one with the black-white outline!). Doing this will select all the white parts of that particular layer. In this case, the dress!

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Now you can just go back to your color layer and click ‘Mask’ again to apply the mask!

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You can switch layers to compare versions, or you can copy the whole image (Select everything, Image -> Select merged) to a new document. This is usually what I do, so I can see the versions side-by-side and choose which one I like best.

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This is basically how I do my digital designs! I personally find it very useful to see colors and patterns applied side-by-side when picking a design. I hope this was helpful.

Autumn skirt – with a temper to match

The story of this shirt started over a year ago when I first saw the fabric in my local fabric store. I immediately loved it, it’s wool, it has a lovely drape, and the colors are gorgeous. It was also rather too expensive to justify buying it without a plan, so I left it. A short while later though, I saw it again, but this time on sale. So I immediately bought all that was left. Just 1,10 meters, but I figured it would work for a skirt.

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So the planning started! I wanted to make a skirt with a pleated top, matching the tartan. But I also wanted it to be quite long, a little below knee length, and to have a narrower line than the ‘poofy’ skirts I often make.

So I started pleating along the 1,5 (width) edge. It was a large challenge to both match up all the stripes and end up with my desired waist measurement. I’d normally take 3 times the waist measurement, but this time I had a little over 2 times, so it just wasn’t working.

After re-pleating it about 3 times, I decided I could add a little width by taking off the length. I had 1,1 in length which was too long anyway. So I cut down the bottom 30 cm and re-sewed it to the sides, matching up the pattern. Doing a french seam, it again took me about 3 times to get right, but it worked.

This is an image of the finished skirt, which still has the french seams. Almost invisible, yay!

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So I started pleating again! Again, it took a while to get right, but at least I had a little more width. When the pleats were done, I stitched them together for about 10 cm deep. I then put in the zipper, and the waistband, made from the tiny bit of scraps I had left.

I hated it. It still turned out a bit too big. The very long pleats didn’t work, it just wasn’t flattering at all. So I took out about half of the length of the pleats, and I re-attached the waistband as facing. But honestly, it was still a bit too big, and not really what I’d had in mind. Because the fabric was so pretty, I didn’t want to settle for a shape which didn’t work. I’d also put in so much work in endlessly pleating and re-pleating, so I couldn’t quite bear to take it all apart yet. So I frustratedly threw it in the ‘todo’ basket and left it there for nearly a year. This is how it came out of the basket (including wrinklyness…)

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Speed up to a couple of weeks ago! I’d been looking at autumny skirts, and thinking back to the gorgeous fabric. I decided to completely re-do the skirt. Having only pleated, I still basically had a rectangle of fabric to work with. Pleats didn’t work, so it would be an A-line  model!

So I took out the waistband facing, the pleats, the hem and the zipper and ended up with a ‘loop’ of fabric. Carefully patterning on paper, I figured I’d be able to make an almost .45 circle with minimal waste.

This is what the patterning and cutting looked like. As you can see, minimal waste! The sides are on the fold, so those didn’t need an extra seam.

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This pattern worked a lot better. I also added a lining so it’d work better with leggings, and re-attached the waistband and zipper. I left the circle hanging to stretch for a week and finally did the hem.

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It took a lot of time, and loads of frustration, but I am finally really happy with how this turned out. The fabric is still stunning, and perfect for the changing weather!

A venture into the 1920’s

The 1920’s have never been one of my favorite periods of clothing. I tend to favor close-fitting with a natural waist even in my modern clothing, and the 1920’s is very much a ‘loose-fitting, dropped waist’ type of period. Given that I’m pretty pear-shaped, having the waistline low on the hips and the rest of the garment cut straight isn’t very flattering either.

Nevertheless, when I got an invite to the yearly dinner for volunteers at the castle where I’m a guide, and saw that there was a ‘Great Gatsby’ theme, I couldn’t resist making a dress for it. So I went looking for a simple pattern with a not too low waistline, which would still look okay on me. I did a bit of searching, and eventually found a great post by Festive Attire for a ‘one-hour dress’ including pattern. The pattern is quite basic, but with some clever gathering it gives a nice drape when made of a slinky fabric. It’s also early ’20s, so the waist is at the high hip and not yet at it’s lowest, which should make it more flattering.

I did some measuring to slightly adapt the pattern to my size. I took my bust-measurement with just a little ease to the bodice part of the pattern and 75 cm for the skirt because that would fit a 150 fabric width quite well. After cutting and fitting, I also decided to slightly curve the neckline and shorten the sleeves just a bit. The hem was adjusted after fitting as well.

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For fabric, I went looking for something which would drape very well, ideally with something of a pattern to it as the shape is quite basic. I ended up falling in love with a tulle with sequined leaves on top. It’s just a little heavier and stiffer where the sequins are then I’d planned, but I figured that 1920’s was the perfect opportunity to use sequins and just go for it. As it’s very see-through, I also got a brown chiffon with a golden glimmer to put underneath. Neither fabric is historically correct as I’m pretty sure they’re polyester and plastic, but they do look the part. I’ll still have to wear a slip-dress underneath because both fabrics are sheer, but it shouldn’t be too noticeable.

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Cutting the fabric took a bit more time than I’d thought, because both fabrics are rather shifty and they needed to be the same. I also ended up cutting the skirt just a bit narrower than planned because the fabrics didn’t quite make the 150 cm width after all. When they were cut, I pinned around the seam lines and ‘inserted’ the chiffon into the sequin fabric. Careful re-pinning, I put the fabric layers on top of each-other to get all 4 layers together.

I decided to make french seams because the chiffon frayed quite badly and both fabrics are rather sheer. It was also easier, because I could just put all 4 fabric layers on top of each other as I cut them and pin on the correct side for the first seam. I was afraid I’d have to remove the sequins around the seams before sewing, which would be a pain because the tulle they’re on is rather fragile, but with a thicker needle I could easily sew right trough them. After doing the initial seams, I fitted to see if the seams were in the right place. I’m happy I did, because I’d made the sleeves too narrow and could still unpick a bit and widen them because I’d left some room. After fixing this, I snipped the seam allowances, turned the whole dress inside-out and re-stitched the seams to catch the seam allowances inside. Next up was doing the gathers on the skirt and side seams. At this point it really started to look like a dress.

I finished the neckline and arm-holes with black satin bias tape. For the hem I finished the raw edge and turned the fabric just once to the inside. This means the edge still shows on the inside, but I was afraid that with 3 layers of sequins it’d become too bulky.

The finished dress on my dress form. From the front and side, showing the drape and gathers:

The bias tape finishing the sleeves

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And a close-up of the gathers on the side:

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The event I made this dress for is the annual dinner for volunteers and employees at the castle De Haar. I’ve been working there for almost 10 years, starting in a paid function in the weekends while still at school. I continued on during my study years, and after starting to work full time turned volunteer to be able to work shorter days. I could never quite give up coming all together, and even though I’m only there 2 days a month now, I’m still in love with the place. It has a long history going back to the 12th century, but was rebuilt from a ruin between 1892 and 1912. The family who owned it was always just there for one month, inviting guests, having lavish dinner parties and masked balls. All in all, it’s an amazing setting.

The main hall when empty:

Afbeeldingsresultaat voor kasteel de haar main hall

A couple of images just before I left, showing off the dress on while it was still light enough.

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Showing off the side gathers.

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And the back.

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Because I coulnd’t resist, in black & white

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I don’t have a lot of images of the event, but this was the one in the ‘official’ photo spot. I was a bit scared to sit on the antique fabric with my sequins, but sitting down carefully and staying still worked.

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Vintage wrap-around

I was browsing through 1950s vintage pattern images recently, and I found quite a number of patterns of ‘wrap-around’ dresses. These are basically dresses without a side seam, they only attach front & back at the shoulders and the skirt ties around the body to form a dress. The fun thing is that these also have a schematic image of what the pattern would look like laying flat. I’m not sure exactly how all of them would work, but some seem relatively simple and reproducible. In any case there seems to have been a bit of a trend for these, maybe even a specific line as they’re all Butterick patterns. I thought I’d share some pictures!

Butterick 6472:

Butterick 6472

 

Butterick 6119 - love that alluring sweetheart neckline. #vintage #1950s #sewing #patterns:

1950s Butterick Pattern 6150 WALK AWAY Wrap Dress Button Back Really Cute Style:

Butterick 6150

Vintage 50s Butterick 6836 Wrap Around Dress The Walk-Away Dress Flared or Slim Skirt Bust 32 or 34 Vintage Sewing Pattern UNCUT FF:

Butterick  6836

*:

MOMSPatterns Vintage Sewing Patterns - Butterick 7349 Vintage 50's Sewing Pattern AMAZING Rockabilly Halter Top Wrap Around Sheath or Overskirt Party Dress LIKE The Walk-Away Dress Butterick 6015!:

Butterick 8151 wrap-around dress similar to walkaway dress:

And, there are two reproduction vintage patterns from Butterick which fit the format. Although I haven’t tried these, I have read somewhere that they’re re-drafted or re-sized for ‘modern figures’ (whatever that means). So these might not have exactly the same pattern pieces as the original vintage patterns. They’ll be a lot easier to find though!

Afbeeldingsresultaat voor BUTTERICK - B6211

It has a new number, but exactly the same pattern envelope!

Afbeeldingsresultaat voor BUTTERICK - B4790

Again, they have taken the original images as pattern envelope.

De Gracieuse – a walk-through

This is a walk-through on how to get original Victorian patterns from the Dutch magazine De Gracieuse, which was published from 1862 to 1936. It has the original patterns included, but they can be a bit difficult to find, so this is a guide. I originally wrote this post in March 2014. As of September 2016, however, the website of the De Gracieuse magazine has changed making a large part of the original post useless or faulty. This post was therefore updated in October 2016 to reflect the new website. It’s actually a bit less orderly than the previous website when it comes to browsing, so I’ve tried to tell you how best to find stuff. Click the link below to see the full (updated) original post.

Atelier Nostalgia

Update – This is a walk-through on how to get original Victorian patterns from the Dutch magazine De Gracieuse, which was published from 1862 to 1936. It has the original patterns included, but they can be a bit difficult to find, so this is a guide. I originally wrote this post in March 2014. As of September 2016, however, the website of the De Gracieuse magazine has changed making a large part of the original post useless or faulty. This post was therefore updated in October 2016 to reflect the new website. It’s actually a bit less orderly than the previous website when it comes to browsing, so I’ve tried to tell you how best to find stuff.

The Dutch woman’s magazine ‘De Gracieuse’ (meaning ‘the graceful’) was in print from 1862 through 1936 and focused on fashion and crafts. Its fashions were directly inspired by the French fashions of the…

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Oorijzers – ‘Ear-irons’ – Part 2

Time for part 2! In my first post about oorijzers I shared the history, what the original oorijzers were and looked liked, as well as one example of how they continued to exist to the early 20th century. The oorijzer is currently best known for its part in various regional costumes in the Netherlands. So for this post, an attempted overview of how and where the oorijzer evolved from the 16th/17th century practical object to the many variations we have today. Prepare for a lot of pictures!

Regional costume

To start this post, a little map of places I’ll be discussing!

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The regions best known for their oorijzers in traditional costume are Friesland (a province in the very north) and Zeeland (a province in the very south). It stuck around in several other places as well though, surviving in the traditional costume of towns like Urk and Staphorst. These towns have their own traditional costume worn very locally. Staphorst sees women wearing traditional clothing on a daily base up to today. The oorijzer evolved in different ways in different places, so you can usually tell which oorijzer comes from which place and which period. I’ll be discussing the most well-known of traditional costumes with oorijzers. Just as a quick disclaimer, these aren’t the only places with an oorijzer in the past of their traditional costume, just the ones most familiar (to me) and well known.

Let’s start with the costume from the Zaanstreek. This is a region above Amsterdam and the traditional costume died out in the early 20th century. It had it’s own typical headwear, which stayed nearly the same during the 18th and 19th centuries. The rest of the clothing largely kept following regular fashion.

This is a 19th century image of the 18th century costume

Zaanstreek, ca. 1790. Visitetoilet. kunstenaar:   Duyvetter, Jan 1948 #NoordHolland #Zaanstreek

Source: Het geheugen van Nederland. Drawing by Duyvetter

The oorijzer  was gold, quite a bit wider than the 17th century version and has large golden plates to the sides. Its worn fairly straight across the back of the head and is not so much a practical thing as a piece of jewelry.

An oorijzer from 1834. You can see the gorgeous filligree on the plates.

 

And a picture from the costume group the ‘Zaanse Kaper’, this is a reproduction of the 18th century costume. She’s also wearing a ‘voorhoofdsnaald’ (the thing across her forhead), two ‘zijnaalden’ (the two ‘needle’ things at the top, you can only see one) and pins behind the plates of the oorijzer. These pin the cap to the oorijzer.

Source: Zaanse Kaper

 

Another village which managed to keep it’s traditional costume despite nearness to a big city is Scheveningen. Now technically a part of the Hague, it used to be a fishing village. The costume has nearly died out, being worn only by a handful of elderly ladies today. There are several groups (from museums or choirs) which keep the knowledge about the clothing alive.

In Scheveningen the oorijzer today is silver with golden knobs. It has a distinctive shape and is used very much to give the cap it’s shape.The golden knobs are worn very close together high on the head.

In the 18th century the oorijzer was mostly silver with golden knobs, which were sometimes decorated with golden ‘bells’, jewels which would hang from the knobs. In the 19th century, some golden oorijzers also existed along side the silver ones. The knobs also took various shapes, settling on the round ones similar to the modern ones at the end of the century.

This is an image from 1850 depicting the costume around that time, also showing the ‘bells’ hanging from the oorijzer in the center top. These also disappeared later in the century. You can see the different types of knobs, as well as the swooping shape the oorijzer has in the back.

Scheveningse visventsters bij hondenkar Aquarel gemaakt voor plaat XLII van: Nederlandsche kleederdragten, naar de natuur geteekend = costumes des Pays-Bas, dessinés d'après nature / door Valentijn Bing en [Jan] Braet von Ueberfeldt. - Amsterdam : [s.n.], 1857. #ZuidHolland #Scheveningen

Image by Bing & Braet, Source: Het geheugen van Nederland

In the current costume, the oorijzer has become longer in the back, giving shape to the cap. The knobs are no longer at the sides of the head but nearly meet at the top and are a distinctive round shape. The pins are put through the knobs to keep the cap in place. (I always have to think of knitting needles sticking through a little ball of wool when I see them)

A lovely picture from the 1950’s showing the shape of the oorijzer and cap. The oorijzer sticks out in the back so keeping the cap in place.

 

An oorijzer from Scheveningen made in 1919

 

Next up is the town of Huizen. This used to be fishing town, before the Afsluitdijk (dike) made the inland sea of the Netherlands into a lake, and before the province of Flevoland was ‘created’.

This is an image of the costume around 1850, showing a simple cap on top of a silver oorijzer with small pins through the knobs.

Man en vrouw in Huizer dracht, 1854 Tekening met voorstelling van een vrouw en man staande voor de huisdeur in Huizer dracht. Naast de man een houten emmer en melkkan, links onder gesigneerd: B.v. Ueberfeldt 1854.  Aquarel gemaakt voor plaat I van: Nederlandsche kleederdragten, naar de natuur geteekend = costumes des Pays-Bas, dessinés d'après nature / door Valentijn Bing en [Jan] Braet von Ueberfeldt. - Amsterdam : [s.n.], 1857. #NoordHolland #Huizen #oorijzermuts

Image by Bing & Braet, Source: Het geheugen van Nederland

The clothing in Huizen followed regular fashion and eventually became all black between 1870 and 1920, probably also due to religious influences. From 1870 on the cap also went through a great change, becoming the main point of interest, mostly due to its size. The oorijzer seems to have stayed relatively similar, changing slightly to accommodate the new style of cap. Two different types of large caps were worn, the ‘isabee’ for daily wear without oorijzer, and the oorijzermuts (oorijzer cap) for Sundays and special occasions. The cap with oorijzer was also a lot more difficult to put on, nearly impossible to do alone.

The cap is put in place with the pins, attaching to the oorijzer. This eventually creates a type of ‘loop’ in the fabric as shown in the next image of the final cap.

Demonstratie van het opzetten van de oorijzermuts. Over de ondermuts en het oorijzer wordt de oorijzermuts opgezet. Met gouden spelden wordt de oorijzermuts aan het oorijzer vastgespeld. Eerst steekt men twee keer door de kantstrook, vervolgens door een gaatje in het oorijzer en tenslotte wordt de punt van de speld door de kantstrook van de muts weggestoken. 1945 #NoordHolland #Huizen #oorijzermuts

Vrouw uit Huizen in zondagse dracht. Ze draagt de oorijzermuts, die met hulp van een tweede persoon is opgezet. 1945 #NoordHolland #Huizen #oorijzermuts

And an image of the oorijzer only. You can clearly see the knobs with holes to put the pins through.

 

Another fishing town where the oorijzer survived is Urk. Urk used to be an island, before the province of Flevoland was basically created around it in the 1930s and 40s. It still very much retains its island culture today. The traditional costume has all but died out, but is sometimes worn for special occasions.

I couldn’t find any information on the 18th century costume, but this image shows the clothing ca. 1850. The oorijzer is silver with silver knobs, little pins stuck through. The knobs are worn on the cheeks.

Aquarel gemaakt voor plaat XXXIX van: Nederlandsche kleederdragten, naar de natuur geteekend = costumes des Pays-Bas, dessinés d'après nature / door Valentijn Bing en [Jan] Braet von Ueberfeldt. - Amsterdam : [s.n.], 1857. #Urk

By Bing & Braet, Source: Het Geheugen van Nederland

Around 1900 the costume reached its current state, the changes mostly being in the clothing. The cap changed little, the version today being a under-cap, a white cap with yellow lace at the front, pinned to the oorijzer and if the lady is married a black over-cap on the back. The red bands disappeared. The white cap and oorijzer would’ve been pinned together first and then put on. These pictures are from the early 20th century, showing the oorijzer beneath the cap. The little round balls are the tops of the pins which pin the cap to the oorijzer.

 

Jonge vrouw van het eiland Urk.

 

The oorijzer, this one made in the late 19th century. It’s very narrow in the front, which shows that it’s meant to press into the cheeks.

 

Staphorst-Rouwveen is a town which even today is known very much for its wearers of traditional costume. It has got the highest number of women still wearing the traditional clothes on a daily basis of the whole country, a couple of hundred today. The youngest is in her 40s though, and most wearers are over 60, so also in Staphorst traditional costume is dying out.

Again, I couln’t find any images from the 18th century costume. The image below is  from ca. 1850 showing the headwear including oorijzer inthe top left corner. The oorijzer is silver, still quite narrow and has small golden ‘curls’ at the ends. It’s worn quite low, both in the neck and on the cheeks.

Vrouwen in de dracht van Overijssel Aquarel gemaakt voor plaat XXVI van: Nederlandsche kleederdragten, naar de natuur geteekend = costumes des Pays-Bas, dessinés d'après nature / door Valentijn Bing en [Jan] Braet von Ueberfeldt. - Amsterdam : [s.n.], 1857. Linksboven een vrouw uit Staphorst. Middenboven en rechts: Schokland. Onder: twee vrouwen uit Giethoorn. #Schokland #Overijssel #KopOverijssel #Staphorst

Excerpt from Bing & Breat. Source

From the 1850s costume, it changed quite a bit until around 1900. After that, small changes kept happening up to at least the 1970s. As the flow of ‘new’ wearers stops, the same usually happens to the changes in fashion.

Staphorst today actually sees two examples of the oorijzer. There’s a girl version, which isn’t worn daily anymore today. The other version is for adult women. Aside from the headwear with the oorijzer, another cap exists. That one is a small decorated cap of fabric and usually the daily wear today. The oorijzer is reserved for special occasions.

The ‘girl-oorijzer’ has the same basic shape as the one for adults, and is made fully of silver. It has very basic knobs at the ends.

The girl-oorijzer, this one was made in 1909.

 

For ‘neat’ wear (opknapdracht) the oorijzer was worn on top of the black under-cap, but without a lace cap on top. For church and special occasions, the lace ‘toefmuts’ was worn on top. The oorijzer changed from being worn low in the neck, going up over the ears and back down, to being worn almost on top of the head, going over the ears and ending low on the cheeks.

A picture of a girl in opknapdracht, picture from the 1940’s.

 

The oorijzer for adult women is similar in shape to the girls. The knobs at the ends are different, and are replaced by golden curls. In the 1850s image you can already see small curls, but these grow bigger.

This oorijzer was made in 1954.

Zilveren oorijzer met gouden krullen en gouden stiften uit Staphorst, gedragen door vrouw of meisje van gegoede komaf. Gouden stiften en klinknagels waren slechts voorbehouden aan enkele welgestelde families. Oorijzer is vervaardigd in 1954 door F.G.A. Drost te Staphorst. Hij gebruikte tijdens eerste decennia van werkzame periode meesterteken van moeder, A.J. Drost-Keus. Haar meesterteken was aangepaste meesterteken van haar in WWII omgekomen man A.O. Drost. #Overijssel #Staphorst

 

A picture of a woman wearing the oorijzer in opknapdracht in the 1940’s.

 

And a picture taken in the 1990’s, of three women who still wear these clothes on a daily base. From left to right they’re dressed in regular, light mourning and mourning clothes, all fit for church.

 

Friesland

Friesland is a province in the north of the Netherlands, but (more so than most others) has a large ‘national’ Frisian identity. They have a flag, and their own official language. In some specific places a specific costume was worn, such as in the town of Hindeloopen or on the islands at the north. In most of the province though, traditional costume mostly took shape through the headwear while the rest of the clothing followed fashion. Friesland is one of the most interesting regions when it comes to the oorijzer. That’s because it had quite a large number of wealthy farmers, that wealth allowing the oorijzer to grow to epic proportions.

In the 18th century Frisian headwear was most commonly the ‘German cap’. I’m not sure of it’s exact origins, but it grew to be quite large. The oorijzer beneath however, was still quite modest. It’s already often made of silver or gold plated.

An 18th century Frisian costume with the German cap and oorijzer.

 

Titel:Trouwkostuum, gestreepte changeantzijde met gebrocheerd bloempatroon, afgezet met franje  Vervaardiger: onbekend  Soort object:trouwkostuum; rok; jak  Vervaardigingsdatum: 1782  Afmeting:hoogte: 75.0 cm  Materiaal: zijde, linnen:

Source: Fries museum

 

An early 18th century gilded oorijzer from Friesland.

Source: Fries museum

 

At the beginning of the 19th century the cap changes quite drastically, and this marks the beginning of a growth in the oorijzer. The band becomes bigger, the knobs growing as well and becoming more ornate.

The headwear at the turn of the 19th century was named a ‘Floddermuts’. This one is for mourning, as it’s plain. The ‘regular’ one would be made of lace.

 

Around this time, the oorijzer starts to grow. This is a gilded copper one from ca. 1800. You see that the knobs at the end grow with the band. Because the front shows best through the cap, the front starts growing first.

Source: Fries museum

 

In time the cap becomes shorter again in the back. Up to around 1850, the oorijzer keeps growing. Along with the base, the knobs at the end grow out to large ornate ornaments. Instead of a practical accessory which keeps the cap to the head, the oorijzer starts to have a more public function. Because it shows quite well beneath the sheer lace caps, your neighbors can see your oorijzer. Being made of silver or gold, a large oorijzer is expensive, a sign of wealth. And of course, it won’t do if your neighbor has one larger than you. With the growing wealth among Frisian farmers, the oorijzer grows to almost be a helmet of gold. Silver was, of course also still worn in less rich families.

The shorter cap. This is what the early Floddermuts evolved to between 1820 and 1880.

Source: Fries museum

 

A gilded copper oorijzer from around 1840. The fronts become larger, and the knobs start to become wider and even more ornate.

Source: Fries museum

 

A golden oorijzer from 1873. This is about as large as the oorijzers got. This one obviously  belonged to a wealthy lady.

Source: Fries museum

 

If you were not quite as rich, you could still have a large golden oorijzer, but the back would be unconnected, needing less metal. This one is gilded brass.

 

Silver versions also existed. It would be common as well to own both silver and gold, with the gold being for Sundays and special occasions and silver for daily wear. In this one from 1879 you can again see the narrow back.

Source: Fries museum

The Frisian costume (i.e. the cap) disappear after 1880/1890. Quite a strong national identity exists though, so a form of the costume (the ca. 1840 version) keeps being worn at events. Nowadays you can still see it being worn in dance groups, costume groups or in the traditional coach races (with Frisian horses). Nearly all of the jewelry, including the oorijzers, are antiques and even today worth quite a lot. (After all, you’re wearing a helmet of gold).

 

Zeeland

Zeeland is the province in the very south-west of the Netherlands, and mostly consists of islands. It’s probably partly due to this island culture that Zeeland evolved to have a rich variety of traditional costume.

The variation in dress in Zeeland existed mostly in the headwear. Small variations also exist in dress, though mainly in the upper-body. For the oorijzer though, the 17th century version evolved into two basic variations worn throughout the province.

In the 18th century, the oorijzer remained largely the same. It was silver and thin, but did develop round/rectangular golden pieces at the ends. These are all images from the 18th century fashion in Zeeland. You can see the small golden oorijzers, the round balls are probably the pins sticking through.

urn-gvn-NOMA01-B09469-4-large_zpsppstpfla (600x164)

Source: Het geheugen van Nederland. Left to right Zuid-Beveland, Zuid Beveland & Walcheren

 

And a late 18th century / early 19th century (pre 1814) oorijzer. You can see the small golden plates at the ends. It still has the same shape as the 17th century oorijzer, and hasn’t really become wider.

 

Before we continue, another map, this time of Zeeland. Most of the names I’ll be throwing around are the islands. Walcheren and Zuid-Beveland are two regions on the same island. Arnemuiden and Axel are specific towns. I’ll also be considering costume from just north of Zeeland, the light blue island at the top of this map. These are the islands of Zuid-Holland. Another province, but the oorijzer existed there as well and is most similar to that of Zeeland.

Zeeland_zps3nz3wdue (574x600)

In the first half of the 19th century, the oorijzer starts evolving in two different ways. In most of Zeeland, the knobs turn into golden curls. In Zuid-Beveland, however, they stay plates and become larger. Most back parts of oorijzers are silver, though brass is also seen. The decorative knobs are generally gold, but also sometimes gilded brass.

Oorijzers from Zuid-Beveland. 1864, 1886 & 1964. The first one is rather unusual, being made of filligree. Most oorijzers would be more similar to the other two, with plain golden plates. Through time, you see the plates growing in size.  This reflects the growth in wealth during the late 19th and 20th centuries.

urn-gvn-NOMA01-HM3521-large_zps5olxmor9 (600x161)

 

Although the oorijzer in the rest of Zeeland and islands of Zuid-Holland all developed into spiraled curls, you do see some slight regional differences. In Walcheren and Axel, you get spirals which are even in size. As well as with the plates, you do also see them growing slightly over time, although they keep the 4 tiers.

Oorijzers from Walcheren (ca. 1800-1825), Axel (1899) & Walcheren (1920)

urn-gvn-NOMA01-HM2896-large_zps6foyswes (600x159)

 

An interesting case is the town of Arnemuiden. At some point the back part of the oorijzer disappears, leaving only the curls. This happens exclusively in the town of Arnemuiden. These ‘curls’, as they’re called (this term is also often used for the whole oorijzer by the way), are pinned to the bonnet. You see here that all practical function of the oorijzer has gone, leaving only the decorative part.

A pair of curls made in 1909.

 

In Noord-Beveland, Schouwen-Duiveland and Tholen you get spirals with 4 tiers, but decreasing in size. The process of growth is similar to the other regions. The twisted spiral seen in the oorijzer of Tholen was typical for this island.

Oorijzers from Schouwen (1856) Noord-Beveland (1872-1904) & Tholen (1954)

urn-gvn-NOMA01-HM5780-large_zpsakz18ism (600x159)

 

In the islands of Zuid-Holland, you also see spirals decreasing in size as they go upwards. Unlike the spirals from Zeeland, however, these are not limited to 4 tiers. Over time, they get more and more spirals.

Oorijzers from the islands of Zuid Holland, (1879, 1898, 1900-1910 worn in Heenvliet)

urn-gvn-NOMA01-Z35-49-large_zps42qt6mpk (600x159)

 

 

These following images all show the oorijzers as worn with the different costumes in Zeeland and the islands of Zuid-Holland, throughout time. Most of these images will show the costume and cap as worn on Sundays, this being the most elaborate version. The most recent images for each costume are also roughly where the changes stopped. This is different per region, depending on how long the costume was still worn. The only one being worn daily today is the one of Arnemuiden.

Zuid-Beveland. On the left is a print ca. 1850. Next to this you see the 2 different ways the cap evolved. Top row is protestant, first image ca. 1905, second one is ca. 1940. The catholic cap is in basis the same, but folded and pleated differently to get a different shape. The first image is ca. 1900, the second one ca. 1950. You can see how the oorijzer was worn much higher on the head than before in the catholic version.

Zuid-Beveland_zps3ztsuya5 (600x295)

 

Walcheren. On the left the costume ca. 1850.  Top right is an image from what I’d guess to be early 20th century. The girls on either side are wearing the ‘girls-cap’, with the long back. The cap in the center is the one generally worn by adult woman. Lower right shows pitures from the 1950’s. Left the adult cap, right the girl cap.

Walcheren_zpskrqztx7z (600x349)

 

Arnemuiden. Left the costume ca. 1850. In the middle a girl ca. 1890. On the right the cap ca. 1930. This was roughly the size the cap stayed afterwards.

Arnemuiden_zpscefgwhua (600x277)

 

Axel. To the left an image depicting Zeeuws-Vlaandren ca. 1850. Top middle is a woman from Axel ca. 1880, bottom middle girls ca. 1905. The right image was taken in 1950.

Zeeuws-Vlaandren_zpsdrver2do (600x266)

 

Noord-Beveland. Left ca. 1850. Top right is ca. 1900, bottom right 1950’s.

Noord-Beveland_zpsklo3cusy (600x476)

 

Tholen. The Bing & Braet series doesn’t cover Tholen, so on the left a print from 1874. On the right a woman in the 1950’s.

Tholen_zpskrfzhvye (600x416)

 

Schouwen-Duiveland. Ca. 1850 on the left, ca. 1910 on the right. The hair was typical for Schouwen and worn slightly different in Duiveland.

Schouwen-Duiveland_zpscgfuh4k9 (600x405)

 

Islands of Zuid-Holland. The left image depicts the costume from Goeree Overflakkee, Voorne, Beijerland and IJsselmonde ca. 1850. In the middle a girl from Voorne ca. 1880, the right image was taken ca. 1910.

Goeree Overflakkee Voorne Beijerland en IJsselmonde_zpszfecr9ov (600x262)

 

This post turned out slightly longer than anticipated, but I wanted to be complete, so I hope it wasn’t too long. This concludes the post. Below some sources, by far most information and images were taken from the website ‘Het Geheugen van Nederland’, which has a large image archive about Dutch traditional costume. This includes wonderful information from about the objects, from the museums they belong to.

 

Sources:

Het Geheugen van Nederland

Fries Museum

De Scheveningse Klederdracht, Koolbergen 1990

Historische Kring Huizen